Institute for Women’s Policy Research

Signatory: Heidi Hartmann, President

Joined: January 2016

ContactElyse Shaw, Research Associate

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Between January 2015 and October 2016, the Institute for Women’s Policy Research produced numerous publications including data on women of color. Publications of note include the following:

High School Girls and Violence 2015: A Chartbook

Chandra Childers and Asha DuMonthier (October 2016) Chart Book

This chartbook seeks to focus attention on the alarming proportion of high school girls, and girls of color in particular, who have experienced physical and sexual violence at the hands of schoolmates, family members, and dating partners. Using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System, the chartbook highlights the impact experiences of violence can have on the mental health, educational, criminal justice, and employment outcomes for girls and women of color as well as providing recommendations for advocates, policy-makers and school personnel to begin to address and reduce violence in the lives of girls and young women.

Girls and Young Women of Color: Where They Are in the United States

Emma Williams-Baron, Elyse Shaw (October 2016) Briefing Paper

This data analysis of the American Community Survey shows the demographics for girls and young women (age 10-24) across the United States regionally and by state. Each region and state has also been given a diversity score, which reflects equal proportional shares of girls and young women of each racial and ethnic group. While two in five girls and young women of color live in the South, nearly a quarter live in the Pacific West, which is also the region with the highest diversity score (1.3).

Women of Color: Where They Are in the United States

Emma Williams-Baron, Elyse Shaw (October 2016) Briefing Paper

This data analysis of the American Community Survey shows the demographics for women (age 18 plus) across the United States regionally and by state. Each region and state has also been given a diversity score, which reflects equal proportional shares of girls and young women of each racial and ethnic group. While two in five women of color live in the South, the Pacific West is the most broadly diverse region in the country, with the highest diversity score (1.3).

Native American Women Saw the Largest Declines in Wages over the Last Decade among All Women

Asha DuMonthier (September 2016) Quick Figure

This data analysis compiled by IWPR shows the startling decline in wages for Native American women across the United States from 2004 to 2014. Native American women’s wages declined more in the last 10 years than any other racial group in the United States. The analysis used data provided by the American Community Survey.  It also includes policy recommendations that could benefit Native American women and increase their earning capacity. Raising the minimum wage and making college more accessible for Native American women are samples of the recommendations proposed.

The Gender Wage Gap: 2015; Annual Earnings Differences by Gender, Race, and Ethnicity

Ariane Hegewisch, Asha DuMonthier (September 2016) Fact Sheet

This data analysis provides a full picture of the gender earnings ratio, including statistics on race and ethnicity. This comprehensive analysis brings attention to the intersectionality of differences in wages. The ratio of women’s median earnings to men’s earnings for full-time, year-round work improved only slightly from 2014 to 2015. Despite this, real median full-time, year-round earnings increased for women in all major ethnic and racial groups. Data are from the Current Population Survey,

Breadwinner Mothers by Race/Ethnicity and State

Julie Anderson (September 2016) Quick Figure

With the large majority of U.S. mothers in the labor force and a steady decline in the real earnings of all workers over recent decades, families are increasingly relying on mothers’ earnings for economic stability. This IWPR analysis of American Community Survey data shows that half of all households with children under 18 in the United States have a breadwinner mother, who is either a single mother who heads a household, irrespective of earnings, or a married mother who provides at least 40 percent of the couple’s joint earnings. Out of all racial and ethnic groups, Black mothers are by far more likely to be breadwinners, with more than four in five Black mothers are breadwinners, with the majority (60.9 percent) raising families on their own.

Black Women Are Among Those Who Saw the Largest Declines in Wages over the Last Decade

Asha DuMonthier (August 2016) Quick Figure

This data analysis compiled by IWPR finds that between 2004 and 2014, Black Women’s annual wages declined by more than three times the rate of women’s annual wages overall. Native American and Hispanic women also saw a decrease in wages during this period. The data was provided by the American Community Survey. In addition to the analysis, policy recommendations to improve the economic stability of Black women are presented. These include fully enforcing Title VII to prevent wage discrimination, and raising the minimum wage.

The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2015 and by Race and Ethnicity

Ariane Hegewisch, Asha DuMontier (April 2016) Fact Sheet

This fact sheet was created to inform on the disparities women face in wages when compared to men. The analysis of the Current Population Survey earning for full-time, wage and salaried workers shows that women’s median earnings are lower than men’s in nearly all occupations analyzed. Women of color also earn less than their male counterparts in almost all men of color in similar occupations. Women of color are more likely to have jobs with poverty-level wages, especially Hispanic women. Additionally, female-dominated occupations—occupations that tend to employ more women of color—generally have lower median earnings than male-dominated occupations.

Status of Women in the South

Julie Anderson, M.A., Elyse Shaw, M.A., Chandra Childers, Ph.D., Jessica Milli, Ph.D., Asha DuMonthier (February 2016) Report—259 pages

The Status of Women in the South builds on IWPR’s long-standing analyses and reports, The Status of Women in the States, that have provided data on the status of women nationally and for all 50 states plus the District of Columbia since 1996. The Status of Women in the South uses data from U.S. government and other sources to analyze women’s status in the southern United States, including Alabama, Arkansas, the District of Columbia, Florida Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. States are ranked and graded on a set of indicators for six topical areas-Political Participation, Employment & Earnings, work & Family, Poverty & Opportunity, Reproductive Rights, and Health & Well-Being-and, whenever possible, data is disaggregated by race and ethnicity to allow closer examination of the status of women of color in the South. The report also includes a chapter with national and state-level data on Violence & Safety, as well as spotlights on Millennials, older women, immigrant women, rural women, women with disabilities, and LGBT women in the South. Like all Status of Women in the States reports, The Status of Women in the South can be used to highlight women’s progress and the obstacles they continue to face and to encourage policy and programmatic changes that can improve women’s opportunities.

Paid Sick Days Access and Usage Rates Vary by Race/Ethnicity, Occupation, and Earnings

Jenny Xia, Jeffrey Hayes, Ph.D., Barbara Gault, Ph.D., Hailey Nguyen (February 2016) Briefing Paper

This briefing paper details who has access to and usage of sick days according to a variety of factors. Men and women have about the same access to paid sick days, however, there are gender disparities when it comes to specific racial and ethnic groups. For example, more than half of the workers in the U.S. have access to paid sick days, but less than half of Hispanic workers have paid sick days. Work-place supervisors are more likely to have access to paid sick days than non-supervisors.

Unemployment Rate for Women and Men of Color Remains Higher Than for White Women and Men

Institute for Women’s Policy Research (September 2015) Quick Figure

With data compiled by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), IWPR demonstrates that Black women and men had the highest levels of unemployment, in contrast with White women and men, who have the lowest levels of unemployment. Black women’s unemployment rates have fallen more slowly than those of Black men. Hispanics have lower unemployment rates than Blacks, but their unemployment rates are still higher than those of Whites. Since 2011, unemployment rates for Hispanic women have decreased more rapidly than those for Black women.

Get to the Bricks: The Experiences of Black Women from New Orleans Public Housing After Hurricane Katrina

Jane M. Henrici, Ph.D., Chandra Childers, Ph.D., Elyse Shaw (August 2015) Report—94 pages  

Get to the Bricks: The Experiences of Black Women from New Orleans Public Housing after Hurricane Katrina presents the results of qualitative research conducted with 184 low-income black women who lived in public housing prior to Hurricane Katrina and the flooding of New Orleans, and who were displaced by the hurricane and the closure and demolition of their housing. This report attempts to answer a series of interconnected questions regarding the challenges that women in public housing faced when trying to evacuate, while displaced, and when trying to return or settle in new communities. The study explores the reasoning behind their choices to either return to New Orleans or remain displaced and the resources that were or were not available to these women as they attempted to make the best decisions for themselves and their families after such an enormous disaster. This report recommends a more holistic approach to disaster relief efforts in the United States, including coordinated services and policies that consider the needs of the most vulnerable portions of the population. The report is part of the Institute for Women’s Policy Research’s work, begun in 2005, focusing on women from different communities, backgrounds, and experiences along the U.S. Gulf Coast following the Katrina-related disasters. The research is also one of a set of investigations conducted as a part of the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) Katrina Task Force.

The Gender Wage Gap by Occupation 2014 and by Race and Ethnicity

Ariane Hegewisch, Emily Ellis (April 2015) Fact Sheet

The analysis of the Current Population Survey earning for full-time, wage and salaried workers shows that women’s median earnings are lower than men’s in nearly all occupations analyzed. Women of color also earn less than their male counterparts in almost all men of color in similar occupations. Women of color are more likely to have jobs with poverty-level wages, especially Hispanic women. Additionally, female-dominated occupations—occupations that tend to employ more women of color—generally have lower median earnings than male-dominated occupations.

The Gender Wage Gap: 2014; Earnings Differences by Race and Ethnicity

Ariane Hegewisch, Emily Ellis, Heidi Hartmann (March 2015) Fact Sheet

This fact sheet details the ways in which women’s median earnings total less than that of men’s. When employed in similar occupations, women still earn less than men of the same race and ethnicity. Significant gender earning gaps remain, despite legislation such as the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

Moynihan’s Half Century: Have We Gone to Hell in a Hand Basket?

Philip N. Cohen, Ph.D., Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D., Jeff Hayes, Ph.D., Chandra Childers, Ph.D. (March 2015) Article

In The Negro Family: The Case for National Action, published in 1965, Daniel Patrick Moynihan famously argued that the fundamental obstacle to racial equality was the instability of Black families, and especially the prevalence of single-mother families. That same year, he predicted that the spread of single-parent families would result not only in rising poverty and inequality but also in soaring rates of crime and violence. Half a century later, we report that the changes in family structure that concerned him have continued, becoming widespread among Whites as well, but that they do not explain recent trends in poverty and inequality. In fact, a number of the social ills Moynihan assumed would accompany these changes have actually decreased.

Toward Our Children’s Keeper: A Data-Driven Analysis of the Interim Report of the My Brother’s Keeper Initiative Shows the Shared Fate of Boys and Girls of Color

Heidi Hartmann, Ph.D., Chandra Childers, Ph.D., Elyse Shaw (February 2015) Report—77 pages

This report was commissioned by the African American Policy Forum (AAPF) as part of a series highlighting issues confronting women and girls of color. This report uses information and data provided by the My Brother’s Keeper Task Force interim report (MBK90) and website in addition to other scholarly research to analyze the validity of the male-centric framework of the My Brother’s Keeper Initiative and to provide information about the status of women and girls of color, comparing their situation with that of men and boys of color as well as with white females and males.

Updates

Wake Forest Joins White House Initiative on Women, Girls of Color

“Women of color will constitute more than half of all women in the United States by 2050, but they are infrequently the central subjects of scholarly inquiry. This research deficit has meaningful consequences for the ways our institutions contribute to public discourse and policy making. As part of the collaborative, Wake Forest is proud to be among such a distinguished group of institutions that seeks to address this deficit.”

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